Causes, symptoms and treatment techniques of glaucoma

Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease known as the "vision thief". Without any aura, early glaucoma has no significant pain or symptoms, so it is difficult to detect and is only noticed when the patient's vision is narrowed. However, when the patient notices a narrowed visual field, his or her eye has suffered irreversible damage. According to the Hong Kong Society of Ophthalmology, 23% of patients who lose their vision are blinded by blindness; People with farsightedness and older than 40 years are at high risk for acute glaucoma.

Glaucoma is caused by excessive pressure in the eyeball, resulting in progressive damage to the anterior chamber, retina, and optic nerve fibers. However, there are patients with intraocular pressure in the normal range (10-21mmHg), but the optic nerve is still unable to withstand the pressure and is damaged, resulting in narrowed vision. Early vision loss usually begins in the peripheral field of view and ends up with only the central part. Without proper treatment, vision can gradually decline or even be completely lost.

Learn more about the causes behind glaucoma

Under healthy conditions, our eyes continuously produce a fluid called "aqueous humor", and to maintain healthy intraocular pressure, the anterior aqueous fluid must be drained from the eye. Eye obsession is caused by high intraocular pressure, which leads to gradual damage to the optic nerve. However, there are patients with intraocular pressure in the normal range (10-21mmHg), but the optic nerve is still unable to withstand the pressure and is damaged, resulting in narrowed vision. Early vision loss usually begins in the peripheral field of view and ends up with only the central part. Without proper treatment, vision can gradually decline or even be completely lost.

Ophthalmologist Tang Wenjie explains the symptoms of glaucoma

Illustrated glaucoma symptoms

Types of glaucoma

Glaucoma can be divided into different types according to its characteristics and etiology. These include chronic glaucoma and acute glaucoma.

  • Chronic glaucoma
    • In the early stages, there are no obvious symptoms, and the patient may not notice any signs. As the disease progresses, the patient's visual field will gradually shrink, and eventually only the central vision will remain, and the peripheral vision will be lost, forming the so-called "tunnel vision". If the condition continues to deteriorate, it may lead to complete blindness.
  • Acute glaucoma
    • Intraocular pressure suddenly rises and obvious symptoms such as blurred vision, rainbow circles when looking at light, red eyes, corneal opacity, severe eye pain, headache, nausea and vomiting. Acute glaucoma, if left untreated, can even lead to permanent vision loss within a day.

Depending on the etiology, glaucoma can also be divided into two categories: primary and secondary.

  • Primary glaucoma
    • There are no obvious causes, including open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma
      • Open-angle glaucoma is when the anterior chamber angle is open, but the optic nerve is gradually damaged due to increased intraocular pressure. In the early stages, most patients fail to detect any symptoms and aura.
      • Angle-closure glaucoma is characterized by abnormal closure of the anterior chamber angle, resulting in obstructed outflow of aqueous humor and increased intraocular pressure. If the anterior chamber angle closes more slowly and intraocular pressure rises more slowly, the patient may not experience any symptoms.
  • Secondary glaucoma
    • Increased intraocular pressure caused by other conditions such as mature cataracts, iritis, bleeding inside the eyeball, tumors, trauma, postoperative complications, and inappropriate use of steroid medications. There are many types of glaucoma, but early detection and prompt treatment are key to reducing the risk of visual impairment.

Different kinds of glaucoma symptoms

Wondering if you have glaucoma? In addition to comparing the symptoms of different types of eye diseases, we can also gain insight into different types of glaucoma symptoms.

Early chronic open-angle glaucoma often has no obvious symptoms, but as the disease progresses, patients may gradually develop loss of peripheral vision.

Early symptoms of angle-closure acute glaucoma may include eye pain, redness, blurred vision, eye swelling, and nausea and vomiting. An attack of acute angle-closure glaucoma may cause symptoms such as acute, severe eye pain, headache, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and seeing halos.

Causes and risk factors of glaucoma

Be 40 years of age or older

Advanced age is an important risk factor for glaucoma. The prevalence of glaucoma increases exponentially with age. People over the age of 60 have a 6-fold increased chance of developing glaucoma.

Family genetic history of glaucoma

Having a family case of glaucoma carries a higher risk. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common hereditary form of glaucoma. If an immediate family member has glaucoma, your risk of developing the disease increases by 4 to 9 times.

Eye trauma

When the eye is hit by a hard object, especially a blunt trauma, it may cause bleeding from the eyeball structures such as the iris, blocking the flow of aqueous humor, which in turn leads to increased intraocular pressure, which in turn leads to glaucoma.

Deep distance/nearsightedness

Deep myopia and farsightedness are also one of the causes of glaucoma. Farsighted patients are prone to extra-corner atresia glaucoma, and high myopia is also one of the causes of chronic open-angle glaucoma. Studies have also pointed out that myopic eyes are more susceptible to increased intraocular pressure. In particular, people with more than 500 degrees of myopia and increased intraocular pressure are more likely to have narrowed visual fields.

Long-term migraine

Long-term migraines are closely associated with glaucoma. Glaucoma can generally be divided into acute and chronic forms, and most cases that cause migraines are chronic glaucoma. On the other hand, migraine is sometimes mistreated along with acute angle-closure glaucoma because the exit aperture of the anterior chamber of the eye is blocked for a short period of time, resulting in a rapid rise in intraocular pressure, which may be accompanied by corneal edema, which can trigger severe headache symptoms. This condition is often mistaken for migraine, which delays the timely treatment of glaucoma.

Have been prescribed for taking or applying steroids

Long-term steroid use can lead to an increase in intraocular pressure, which in turn can lead to steroid-induced glaucoma. Long-term use of steroids can block the aqueous humor drainage hole of the eyeball, reducing the rate of aqueous humor drainage, which in turn leads to increased intraocular pressure. However, once steroid use is stopped, IOP can drop to the normal range in most patients.


The results showed that people with diabetes were twice as likely to develop glaucoma, mainly open-angle glaucoma, compared to non-diabetics.

Suffering from cardiovascular disease

People with cardiovascular disease are more likely to develop glaucoma. Although hyperlipidemia does not directly cause eye lesions, studies have shown that hyperlipidemia is directly proportional to the increase in intraocular pressure, thereby increasing the risk of glaucoma.


People with high blood pressure are twice as likely to develop "normal intraocular pressure glaucoma" than others. High blood pressure can impair the regulatory system of blood circulation in the eyeball, causing the blood in the eye to function improperly. Therefore, even if the intraocular pressure is within the normal range, high blood pressure can accelerate the rate of optic nerve degeneration.

Sleep apnea

Recent literature studies have pointed out that there is a relationship between sleep apnea and glaucoma. It is possible that the patient has a lack of oxygen during sleep, which in turn affects the blood circulation around the eyeball, resulting in hypoxia of the optic nerve, which in turn leads to the gradual deterioration of vision.

Glaucoma treatment techniques

Prescription eye drops are one of the common treatments for glaucoma. Eye drops can be used to control intraocular pressure levels to the appropriate target range, protect optic nerve tissue and reduce further visual impairment. As a non-invasive treatment, eye medication has fewer side effects and is safer than laser and surgical treatments. Many glaucoma eye drops are now available in a combined formula, allowing patients to take only one drop a day.

At present, many glaucoma potions are already available in a combined formula, and patients can take just one drop of eye drops a day.

If glaucoma cannot be controlled with medical treatment, patients may consider laser and surgical treatment, such as trabeculectomy, drainage surgery, catheter implantation, ciliary photocoagulation or cryoplasty, argon laser periiroplasty and minimally invasive glaucoma surgery.

  • Trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure that reduces intraocular pressure by removing part of the trabecular tissue to increase the drainage of the aqueous humor.
  • Drainage surgery creates a new drainage channel in the eye to facilitate the drainage of aqueous humor.
  • Catheter implantation involves placing a drainage catheter in the eye to direct the flow of aqueous humor.
  • Cyclophotocoagulation or cryosurgery is the destruction of ciliary body tissue by laser or cryotechnology, reducing the production of aqueous humor and thereby reducing intraocular pressure.
  • Argon laser iris periplasty uses argon laser to expand the outflow channel of aqueous humor and increase the outflow of aqueous fluid.

A new option for patients with mild to moderate glaucoma: the latest glaucoma treatments






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The MicroPulse P3 Glaucoma Device (MP3), provided by the CYCLO G6 Glaucoma Laser System, utilizes non-pulsed, repeatable and predictable MicroPulse®technology to provide innovative annular condensation that destroys ciliary body tissue and reduces the production of aqueous humor to reduce intraocular pressure.

Glaucoma FAQs

What can I eat to prevent glaucoma?

It is recommended to increase your intake of vegetables and fruits containing vitamins, minerals and antioxidant nutrients, such as kale, carrots and peaches. In addition, eating nitrogen-rich foods, such as dark green vegetables, can also help reduce the risk of glaucoma.

How Long After Diagnosis of Glaucoma Can I Go Blind?

Glaucoma does not necessarily cause blindness, and can be effectively controlled if the patient receives stable treatment. The chance of blindness caused by glaucoma is about 10% to 25%, and in the case of acute glaucoma, if left untreated, patients with acute glaucoma may be at risk of blindness within a few days.

Chronic glaucoma usually has no obvious symptoms in the early stages. When problems such as blurred vision, inability to see objects clearly at an angle, and stepping on stairs usually indicate that glaucoma has entered an advanced stage, and patients may face a crisis of blindness within 3 to 5 years.

Can glaucoma be cured?

There is currently no complete treatment for glaucoma, but as long as the correct diagnosis and treatment can be carried out at an early stage and in close cooperation with an ophthalmologist, the good condition of the eye can be maintained to the greatest extent.

How is glaucoma detected early?

Early glaucoma lacks obvious symptoms, and once the patient notices that his field of vision is narrowed, the eye has suffered irreversible damage. Therefore, it is recommended that adults should have a comprehensive eye examination every one to two years to check intraocular pressure, cornea, and other eye health conditions so as not to miss the opportunity to control the disease.

Explain Presbymax presbyopia laser vision correction surgery

Get rid of reading glasses from now on! 【Presbymax Presbymax Laser Surgery】Helps restore youthful vision

Presbyopia is a vision problem that occurs with age, and almost everyone has presbyopia, usually in people around the age of 40. Many people with presbyopia are reluctant to wear reading glasses for fear of being ridiculed for their age, which affects their daily lives. However, now that there are more and more ways to correct presbyopia, wearing reading glasses is not the only option, such as the Presbymax presbymax laser surgery highly recommended by ophthalmologist Dr. Tang Wenjie, which can not only avoid the embarrassment of wearing reading glasses, but also restore the vision of the eyes when they were young. What is presbyopia? The most common symptom of presbyopia is dyslexia, reading the text on the mobile phone or newspaper can become quite strenuous, and it is necessary to constantly adjust the distance to find a clearer focus. Prolonged close movement can make it easy to feel eye strain, dryness or discomfort; When working at close range in darker environments, more light is needed to help the eye focus. The main cause of presbyopia is the degeneration of the lens and ciliary muscle in the eyeball. This degradation causes the lens to become stiff and inelastic, which in turn affects the eye's refractive ability and ultimately vision. Although presbyopia usually occurs in people in their 40s, however, with the advancement of technology, people are increasingly relying on electronics. Staring at the screen for a long time will cause the ciliary muscle to tighten too much, causing the eyes to enter the presbyopia stage early. Therefore, protecting eye health is extremely important for modern people. It is recommended to reduce the time spent using electronic products to allow enough time for the eyes to relax to slow down the development of presbyopia. 2 methods self-test for presbyopia Method 1: Symptom check The following are some common symptoms related to presbyopia, if you get more than 3 presbyopia, you may have presbyopia. Method 2: Banknote test If you can focus within 1 second, it is normal; More than 1 second is at risk of presbyopia; More than 3 seconds can basically determine that there is presbyopia. If you suspect that you have presbyopia, it is recommended to consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible for professional advice and help. Your ophthalmologist will give you the need to wear reading glasses based on your vision needs or recommend Presbymax laser surgery to improve presbyopia. Early recognition and treatment of presbyopia can help improve vision and improve quality of life. What is the difference between presbyopia and farsightedness? Presbyopia and farsightedness are also blind, but the causes of the two are not the same. In addition, if you find that you have vision problems, it is recommended to go for a test. Presbyopia is an age-related vision problem in which the lens and ciliary muscle of the eye gradually deteriorate with age, making it less focused and making it difficult for the eye to see clearly in close objects and dark environments. If presbyopia has seriously affected your life, Presbymax presbyopia correction surgery can be considered. This is because Presbymax can not only treat presbyopia, but also help improve myopia, farsightedness, astigmatism and other problems, and restore the eyes to their youthful state. Farsightedness is a vision problem related to the structure of the eyeball. It is mainly formed by short eyeballs or weakness of the ciliary muscle. If only the eyeball is short but the ciliary muscle is developed, there will basically be no problem of blurred vision; When the ciliary muscle is weak, it needs to be forced to focus on the near object. Farsightedness is innate, meaning that most children have farsightedness, but there is no need to worry too much, as the eye develops normally, the farsightedness will be relieved. Leave the old flowers alone, be careful of physical problems! Many patients feel that presbyopia has little impact on life and are reluctant to face up to the problem of presbyopia, thinking that they can see clearly by simply squinting, and even reading glasses are reluctant to wear. However, this behavior will cause ciliary muscle overwork, increase the burden on the eyes, cause eye soreness and discomfort, eye pain, etc., and in severe cases, it will even spread to the shoulder and neck area, resulting in shoulder and neck pain, headache, dizziness, nausea and other symptoms. Although presbyopia is not an emergency, the degree of presbyopia will increase with age. If presbyopia at 100 degrees is diagnosed at 40 degrees, it will increase to 300 degrees at 60 degrees, and the degree of presbyopia will increase by about 10 degrees per year. If the presbyopia degree decreases abnormally, this may be a warning sign for cataracts, and patients should seek detailed examination and appropriate correction from an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. Timely identification and treatment of presbyopia is the key to protecting eye health. What are the ways to correct presbyopia? With the continuous advancement of medicine, more and more ways to correct presbyopia, including monofocal glasses, multifocal lenses, contact lenses or surgical implantation of intraocular lenses, Presbymax presbyopia laser surgery, etc. Traditional vision correction surgery VS Presbymax presbyopia correction, which one to choose? SLR vision surgery Multifocal intraocular lens Presbymax presbyopia

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Is surgery necessary to treat cataracts? Intraocular lenses help cataract patients restore their field of vision

According to the World Health Organization, about 39 million people worldwide are blind, of which 51% are caused by cataracts, the leading cause of blindness in the world. The most common cataract is senile cataract, which is usually found to have cataract symptoms in people over 50 years old, while diabetics and deep myopia are more likely to develop cataract symptoms earlier. If the cataract becomes mature, it will bring a series of complications to the patient, such as: glaucoma, uveitis, etc., and even blindness, with serious consequences. Therefore, patients will undergo cataract surgery, treat cataracts with intraocular lenses, and restore clear vision to the eyes through treatment. What is Cataract? Cataract is caused by the transparent lens used to focus in the eye becomes cloudy due to old age or disease, and the lens functions like a camera lens, helping the eye to focus accurately, so that the image can be focused on the retina to form a clear image. The lens is made of proteins and has the function of regulating light. When the lens becomes cloudy, the transparency decreases, and light cannot pass through, resulting in decreased vision and cataracts. What are the symptoms of cataracts? The symptoms of cataract are relatively easy to identify compared with other eye diseases, such as dry eye, and the most noticeable symptoms generally include reduced reading ability, which is mainly caused by blurred vision, and there will be photophobia problems, patients are also prone to glare at night, or symptoms such as loss of color and contrast resolution. The symptoms of cataract can be subdivided into early cataract symptoms and late cataract symptoms: Early cataract symptoms Photophobia Monocular diplopia Myopia suddenly soars geometrically Presbyopia Late cataract symptoms Vision simulation Glare when you see things Image color becomes dull Why do I get cataracts? Aging The main cause of cataract is due to aging, aging eyes, which is also known as "senile cataract", caused by the aging and decline of the crystals. In medicine, according to the opacity location of the lens, such cataracts are subdivided into three categories: posterior subcapsular opacity, nuclear opacity, and cortical opacity. Other diseases Also known as "secondary cataracts", they are caused by surgery, steroid medications, or other health problems such as glaucoma, diabetes, intraocular inflammation, and high myopia. Trauma Trauma is also one of the causes of cataracts. When the eye has been subjected to strong impact, puncture injury, or has been subjected to high heat, chemical burns, etc., the crystal fibers are misaligned, and lesions such as turbidity and hardening may occur. However, some patients do not develop cataracts immediately, but gradually appear later.

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How long does it take for dry eye to get better or improve? The doctor explains the causes of dry eye syndrome and the treatment plan in detail

Have you ever tried to work for a while, but you feel that your eyes are dry and itchy, and you can't help blinking, even if you close your eyes and rest? This may be a symptom of dry eyes! Want to improve dry eyes, think that just eye drops, artificial tears, or reduce the TV and computer screens, can improve dry eye symptoms from the root cause of the disease? If you think it won't take long for dry eyes to heal on their own, you're very wrong! It may be that these methods will only make the symptoms of dry eye more and more serious.

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